MRV is the acronym of Monitoring, Reporting & Verification and it became popular when the “Regulation (EU) 2015/757 of the European Parliament on the Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of Carbon Dioxide emissions from maritime transport” came into force last 1st July 2015.

Purpose of this Regulation is to establish procedures for Monitoring, Reporting & Verification of CO2 emissions and additional data gathering to be followed by

  • any ship > 5,000 gross tonnage
  • arriving at, within or departing from EEA ports (EU Member States, Iceland and Norway Ports).

S-Keeper 7™, in accordance with MARPOL VI requirements, exceeds the MRV requests and allows the Ship Owner or the Fleet Manager to be fully compliant, with no additional cost, also to Regulation (EU) 2015/757.

Which type of ship is involved in this Regulation? Passengers ships, ro-ro ships, container ships, oil/chemical/gas/bulk carriers…basically any type of ships but warships, naval aux, fish-catching/processing…see the full list in [Article 2]

Here the Regulation Milestones as per [Article X] on Regulation 2015/757

  • Within 31 August 2017 it will be mandatory to submit to an accredited MRV shipping Verifier a Monitoring Plan clarifying the Method chosen to monitor and report CO2 emissions [Article 6]
  • From 1s January 2018, monitor and report to an accredited MRV shipping Verifier, CO2 emissions and main data to determine the ships’ average energy efficiency [Article 8]
  • From 2019, by 30 April of each year the Verified Emissions Report should be electronically submitted to the Commission for each of the ships concerned [Article 11]
  • From 2019, by 30 June of each year, ships should carry on board a Document of Compliance issued by an accredited MRV shipping Verifier and this might be subject to inspections by Member States’ authorities [Article 18]

The Monitoring Plan, to be submitted by 31 August 2017, will be based on several data to identify the Ship itself and selected method for monitoring CO2 [Article 6]:

  • IMO Identification Number, Home Port, Name of the Company…
  • List of CO2 sources on board like Main Engines, Aux Engines, Gas Turbines, Boilers…and fuel type used
  • Description of the procedures for monitoring fuel consumption
  • Single Emission factors to be applicable each fuel type
  • Description of the procedures to assess & record activity data / voyage such as Passengers Number or Cargo Carried

and it will be standardized according to available templates, see Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1927 “on Templates for Monitoring Plans…maritime transport”.

The Monitoring Plan, to be submitted by 30 April of each year as per [Article 11, 2015/757], will be in an electronic version according to the template available in the Thetis MRV automated Union Information System aka Thetis MRV see

The Ship Verifier is a legal entity, accredited by a recognized & national accreditation body, carrying out verification activities and assessing the conformity of the Monitoring Plan with Regulation requirements. The Verifier shall be an entity fully independent from the Ship Company or Ship Operator entity. Regulation (EU) 2016/2072 “on the verification activities and accreditation of verifiers….maritime transport” is dedicated to clarify the role, the requirements and the duties of the Verifier.

The Cargo Carried determination is clarified in Regulation (EU) 2016/1928 “on determination of cargo carried…emission from maritime transport” on which are listed the ship categories and the parameters to determine the “cargo carried” per ship category.

The CO2 Monitoring Activities will be performed on both a per-voyage basis and an annual basis with a different sets of gathered data [Article 10 & 11] and ANNEX II:

Per-Voyage Basis set will rely on

  1. Port of Departure & Port of Arrival
  2. Amount & Emission Factor for each type of fuel consumed in total
  3. CO2 emitted
  4. Time spent at sea
  5. Cargo Carried
  6. Transport Work…

Annual Basis set will rely on

  1. Amount & Emission Factor for each type of fuel consumed in total
  2. Aggregated CO2 emissions for all voyaged between/departed/arrived to Member State Ports
  3. Total distance travelled and time spent at sea
  4. Transport Work
  5. Averaged Energy Efficiency

ANNEX I clarifies


The Calculation of CO2 as next formula

Calculation of CO2 = Fuel Consumption x Emission Factor

The updated Emission Factors are listed in Regulations 2016/2071 “amending Regulation  (EU) 2015/757….other relevant information”


The 4 acceptable methods for calculate actual fuel consumption for each voyage

a) Bunker Fuel Delivery Note aka BDN

b) Bunker fuel tank monitoring on board

c) Flow Meters for applicable combustion processes

d) Direct CO2 emissions measurements

or any combinations of above methods to enhance the overall accuracy of the measurement.

As per next table, any S-Keeper 7™ type is able to measure directly CO2 emissions and therefore is compliant to MRV requirements:


S-Keeper 7™ will measure the CO2 concentration emitted by main engines, aux engines, gas turbines, boilers as required thanks to the extractive method taking off from each exhaust gas stack (funnel).


The CO2 concentration is multiplied by exhaust gas flow, calculated with Carbon Balance Method, to determine the CO2 emissions. A self-calibration method is a S-Keeper 7™ standard as well any type of ship data gathering and subsequently a fully customized report release.

[Article 20] is focused on Penalties, Information Exchange & Expulsion Order… and paragraph 3 clarify  “In the case of ships that have failed to comply with the monitoring and reporting requirements for two or more consecutive reporting periods and where other enforcement measures have failed to ensure compliance, the competent authority of the Member State of the port of entry may issue an expulsion order which shall be notified to the Commission, EMSA, the other Member States and the flag State concerned“.